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Forced labor and Meiji Industrial Revolution heritage

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Human society has obtained historical recognition to prohibit human violations such as the slavery, racism, colonialism, wars of aggression, and wartime sexual violence, and not allow to the recurrence. We have walked the path toward the recovery of damage and dignity of those victims. Our efforts towards the resolution of forced labor and sexual slavery due to the Japanese colonial rule and war are also part of it.

The dispute over Meiji Industrial Revolution heritage sites revealed that, the Japanese government does not admit the forced labor of the war to the Korean people. Correspondence of the current Japanese government is not to recognize the truth, but to justify the past. Thus it is distortion of history and historical revisionism.
Below, it shows the problems of the historical recognition of the Japanese government@and clarifies the actual situation of forced entrainment and forced labor of the Koreans, Chinese and Allied POWs.

1@Problems of recognition about forced labor of Japanese government

This time, in the UNESCO registration of Meiji Industrial Revolution heritage, whether or not to recognize the Korean forced labor has become a hot topic. This problem means that Japanfs government should be have a clear recognition of forced entrainment and forced labor in wartime with good faith. And at registration of heritage, Japanfs government should make to reassess the periodization and the object of Meiji Industrial Revolution heritage, and to reflect the history of forced entrainment and forced labor.

Meiji Industrial Revolution heritage has become a World Heritage Site in July 2015. At that time, the Government of Japan saidgJapan is prepared to take measures that allow an understanding that there were a large number of Koreans and others who were brought against their will and forced to work under harsh conditions in the 1940s at some of the sites, and that, during World War II, the Government of Japan also implemented its policy of requisition.h

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The sentence was intended to indicatethe forcedentrainmentand forced laborby therecruitmentpolicytowardKoreansand otherpeople(Chinese-Allied POWs), where of them, the Japanese government claimed that "forced to work" do not mean " forced labor". The recruitmentofthe Korean people inwartimedo not violate the international law
In this way, the Japanese governmentis nottrying torecognize theforced laborof theKoreansand otherpeople(Chinese-Allied POWs).

In the growing movement of theforced laborproblemresolution requestsin the 1990s, in March1999, the International Labor Organization declared that the Japanese policy toward the Koreans and Chinese in wartime violates the Forced Labor Convention,1930(No,29).

Today, although the ILO has clearly recognized the wartime forced labor, the Japanese government claims that those workers were "forced to work" rather than "forced labor" as Korean government insists

This situationhasoccurredfrom the fact that the Japanese governmenthas notsolved theforced laborproblem for 70 years since the end of World WarU .

2@ Forced entrainment and forced labor of Koreans, Chinese and Allied POWs

How many of the Korean, Chinese and Allied force prisoners were under the situation of forced entrainment and forced labor to Japan?

Koreans

Koreans were forcibly entrained for labor or military service. Historical records of the Ministry of the Interior made it clear that the number of mobilized people from 1939 to 1943. We can also see the planned number in fiscal 1944. 800,000 labors were determined from the records. About 370,000 people mobilized as soldiers and military employees. The total mobilized number was more than 1,150,000. The number of labors remained in Korea is several times larger.

Requisition means to forcibly mobilize and to force labor. The National Mobilization Law, enabled one-year imprisonment or 1000 yen or less fine on those who do not follow the law. Requisition was forced with a penalty. Although application of the requisition to the Koreans was from 1944, labor recruitment of Koreans began after the publication of National Recruitment Ordinance of 1939 in the form of offering and mediation. They were if they flee from mobilized site by offering, they were placed on the police wanted list. When they are discovered, they were taken back to the site. No freedom of movement, the labor was forced.

About 370,000 people were mobilized to work for military. Japanese government mobilized 242,341 people, and 22,182 people of them died (report of 1962), this number is limited to those who are limited. The number that has been published is 100,000 smaller than the actual mobilization.

In South Korea the labor recruitment by the Japanese since is called forced mobilization, or commandeered labor recruitment. Before the application of the Recruitment Ordinance, requisition existed since 1944, applying the Recruitment Ordinance in order to strengthen the coercive force , Japan mobilized 290,000 people from Korea .

At that time, by colonial rule Koreans had been forced to be "Empire Subjects", and given Japanese names, and they were recruited to the war. Their ethnicity was denied, and they were mobilized as Japanese. This is racism. The view that it was not forced labor, but they were only forced to work because they were treated equally condition as Japanese is a sophistry to hide the racism and colonialism.

Chinese

About 39,000 Chinese people were forcibly entrained, and about 6800 of them were died. Entrained Chinese were forced to labor at 135 locations. Being abused in camps in China, a number of people died during entrainment. Japan did not treat the Chinese people as war prisoners, but taking the form of Agreement labor and recruitment, disguised a contract and entrained them.

Several millions of people were forcibly entrained to "Manchuria" in the occupied territories. Forced mobilization for labor and military service from colonial Taiwan were also made. The mobilization of military and civilian personnel from Taiwan ended up with more than 200,000 people, dead or missing persons count more than 30,000 people.

Allied prisoners of war

Allied prisoners of war amounted to about 350,000 people, of which Euro were about 150,000. The Japanese sent about 36,000 people to Japan for forced labor. More than 10,000 people attacked and sunk into the ocean on their way. Camps for forced labor established about 130 places including dispatch offices. About 32,000 people were imprisoned at the end of war. The dead after entrainment to Japan were about 3,500. Including the Taimen Railway construction, labor was forced in Asia. Also there were Indian soldiers who were forcibly labor for the Japanese army. In those fields, many people lost their life.

Heavy industrialization since the industrial revolution had led to the expansion of the acquisition of market resources in foreign countries, colonial rule, and war of aggression. Japanfs War brought the forced entrainment and forced labor of Korean, Chinese and Allied POWs. It is important to capture the industrial revolution from the point of view of such labor.

3@ forced labor and Meiji industrial heritage

Places of this time of the Meiji Industrial Revolution heritage, such as Yahata Works, Mitsubishi Nagasaki shipyard, Mitsubishi Takashima coal mine (Takashima-Hashima), and Mitsui Miike coal mine are the sites that indicates the forced labor of wartime in particular.

We are going to review from Yahata Works.

Nippon Steel Yahata Works

Yahata Works was the largest steel company in Japan. State-run Yahata ironworks operation started in 1901, as it is funded by the Sino-Japanese War reparations from China. It was a construction with money robbed from China, and many of iron ore were imported from the Daya Mine in China. The integration of the steel industry for increased demand and the war expansion founded the Nippon Steel in 1934. Yahata Works was owned by the Nippon Steel. During the China-Japan war, Japanese troops began to occupy Daya Mine of China, and it was owned by Nippon Steel. In the 1940s, Nippon steel entrained a lot of KoreansDKoreans, Chinese and Allied POWs were taken away to Yahata Works.

Yahata Works is currently owned by Nippon Steel and Sumitomo Metals.

394 of Koreans were entrained to Yahata Steel by June 1942 (Central Kyowakai "import Korean laborer situation tone"), and 1471 people were entrained by January 1944, of which 760 of them fled (Fukuoka Prefecture, "Surveys Table of laborer populate and workplace of labor mobilization plan"). The number had increased.

Yahata Steel entrained 921 people in 1942, 550 people in 1943, 1968 people in 1944 and 381 people in 1945. In total, 3820 people were entrained ("Survey on Korean laborer" the summary table of Fukuoka prefecture, the Ministry of Health and Welfare by the labor office). At the end of the war, 2788people stayed, of which 2761people were requisitioned, based on the survey report of Yahata Works("Survey on Korean laborer"). Looking at the deposit records of Nippon Steel in Yahata, there is a roster of 3042 people (Nippon Steel, Labor Department, "Korean laborer relation").

About 3800 people were entrained to the Yahata Works.

2785 people were entrained to the Yahata Works transportation contractors Mutual Aid Association by June 1942 (Central Kyowakai "import Korean laborer situation toneh). Then, the number seems to increase. We can estimate that more than 2800 people were entrained in the transportation department of Yahata.

Under such entrainment situation, in Yahata, 3800 or more Koreans have been taken to steelworks, 2800 or more people to Yahata Works transportation contractors Mutual Aid Association, and in total more than 6600 people had entrained. However, only three names of the Korean deaths in Yahata Works are known. Rest of them is unknown.

201 of the Chinese were entrained to Nittetu Yahata Harbor Transportation in September 1944, and 20 of them died.

Allied POWs had been taken to POW camps of Yahata made in September 1942. The total number of inmates at the end of the war was 1195 (US 616, Netherlands211ABritain193, India 132, China 22 other 21). 158 people died in the camps.

Nippon Steel Kamaishi,etc.

The World Heritage Site also contains Kamaishi mine and blast furnace remains of early Meiji in Iwate prefecture. This iron mine and ironworks in Kamaishi, however, also experienced forced labor in wartime.

470 Koreans were entrained to Nittetsu Mining Kamaishi mine by June 1942 and 498 people were sent to Nippon Steel Kamaishi as well (Central Kyowakai "import Korean laborer situation tone"). Record of 690 people were confirmed on the roster of Kamaishi ironworks (Nippon Steel Affairs Department, "Korean laborer relation"). In total the number of entrained Koreans has estimated to be about 1500 in Kamaishi mine and Kamaishi ironworks, of which 18 people in Kamaishi mine, and found 39 people in Kamaishi ironworks died, 13deaths were found in other Kamaishi related fields.

197 and 91 Chinese people were entrained to Kamaishi mine in November 1944 and February 45 respectiveiy. The total entrained number is 288 people. Of these, 123 people died (Ministry of Foreign Affairs "Chinese laborer working circumstances Survey Report").

Allied POWs Hakodate camp was placed in November 1943 (later Tokyo POW camp to Sendai POW camp), and POWs were forced to labor in Kamaishi Ironworks. At the end of the war, 351 people (Netherlands168, Britain86, US78 other19) were in the camp, number of deaths were 50 people (of which 34death were US naval bombardment).

This Nippon Steel was a state owned monopoly capital. A lot of Korean, Chinese and Allied POWs were taken away and forced to labor.

Since Japan led such mobilization, words such as "forced labor did not exist" make no sense. The responsibility of the government and the companies are inevitable.

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Nagasaki Shipyard

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries was the largest munitions company responsible for shipbuilding and aircraft production. The shipbuilding factory was in Nagasaki. The aircraft torpedoes used in the Pearl Harbor attack were manufactured in Nagasaki and the atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki aimed at the factories of Mitsubishi. Therefore, it is said that the War started from Nagasaki and ended at Nagasaki.

Recording the Korean forced entrainment to the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Nagasaki Shipyard, 3474 people were entrained in 1944 and 2501 people were entrained in 1945. The   total number is 5975 (the "Survey on Korean laborer" Nagasaki Prefecture by the Ministry of Health and Welfare Labor Bureau). Although there is no more in this report, we found that there were entrained nearly 6,000.

Although it is a small number, there is a named list of Korean, such as Fukuda dormitory of Nagasaki Shipyard.

Korean had been entrained to Mitsubishi Nagasaki weapon Works, Mitsubishi Nagasaki steelmaking, Mitsubishi Nagasaki Electric and the underground factory construction of Mitsubishi related factories. For Mitsubishi Nagasaki steelmaking, there is a roster of 143 people in "Survey on Korean laborer".

If the number of associated factory is included, the number of entrained people to the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard is about 6000 people. It will increase.

The Koreans death, in the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard Works is 63, 4 in the Nagasaki weapon. Furthermore, it sees that there were many Atomic bomb deaths, but the number  is unknown.

To the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard Works, the Allied prisoners of war were also taken away. Fukuoka POW camp 14th branch office was opened in April 1943. 300 people were taken away to Nagasaki in April 1943 and 212 people were taken away June 1944. The total is about 500. Some were moved out to other places. 195 people (Netherlands152, Australia24, Britain19) were housed at the end of the war. 113 people died (including atomic bomb death of 8).

More than1500 people Allied POWs, 1000 in October 1942, 300 in December 1942, 200 in September 1944, were taken away to the Kawanami industrial Koyagi shipyard, which was absorbed into Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard after the war. At the time of defeat, 497 people were imprisoned (Netherlands324, Britain 160, US 5, other 8). 72 people had died.

In 1992, Kim Sungil trial was filed in the Nagasaki District Court, he was claiming compensation for slave labor from the Japanese government and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. The Nagasaki District Court decision in 1997, certified the entrainment with illegal means and the forced labor under house arrest by the government and Mitsubishi. However, although the court also certified its responsibilities, Kimfs demand was rejected because the old Mitsubishi Heavy Industries had been dissolved, and there is no liability for the individual damage caused by the government under the old Constitution.

Kim lost the case, but the existence of forced entrainment and forced labor has been certified.@ The fact of the forced entrainment and forced labor was also certified in the case of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Nagoya, (Nagoya High Court ruling in 2005).

Accordingly, wartime forced labor of the Koreans was certified legally. As for Meiji Industrial Revolution heritage, the Japanese government it was notgforced laborh. It should face the findings of the fact.

Mitsubishi Takashima coal mine (Takashima and Hashima)

With Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Mitsubishi Mining is a major company of the Mitsubishi Zaibatsu had mines in various places. In the wartime, about 60,000 of Koreans were entrained.

The Mitsubishi Mining Takashima coal mine was in Nagasaki and the Mining sites were in Takashima and Hashima (Gnkanjima). Both were coal mines under the seabed. In Takashima many workers had lost their lives. In 1885, after Mitsubishi started its business, more than 500 people were died of cholera. In Kakise shaft of Takashima coal mine, gas explosion happened in 1906; 307 people died. Accidents had happened continuously under the Mitsubishi management deaths of industrial and total number of victims exceeded 1000 people.

1110 of the Koreans were entrained to the Takashima coal mine by June 1942 (Central Kyowakai "import Korean laborer situation tone"). And the statistical record from Coal Control Board indicates that 600 people had mobilized in 1943, and more than 1100 people had mobilized in 1944.

1299 people are on the postwar dismissal roster of Takashima coal mine ("Survey on Korean laborer" Nagasaki Prefecture by the Ministry of Health and Welfare Labor Bureau). We can see that boys of 14 and 15 years old, had been taken away from the list. Unpaid wages were known to be more than 220,000 yen.

From these historical records, the entrainment number in Takashima coal mine (Takashima and Hashima) was estimated to be about 4,000.

48 victims of Hashima are known from the documents of Takahama village "Burial cremation permit certificate ".

Only two names of Takashima are known. But it seems that about 50 people had died there.

Korean women had been taken away as "comfort women" to the coal mine as well. In June 1937, Hashima, a Korean waitress (Shakufu) committed suicide by taking poisonous cresol. She was 18 years old; born in 1919 (Burial cremation permit certificate). Shakufu was not only a cupbearer, but also often forced prostitution.

In June 1944, 204 Chinese were forcibly entrained to Hashima and 205 Chinese were sent to Takashima in July 1944. The number of deaths is 15 in Takashima and 15 in Hashima.

Mitsubishi Mining, currently, has been active in the name of Mitsubishi Materials.

Mitsui Miike coal mine

Mitsui Mining was a center company of the Mitsui Zaibatsu, as well as Mitsubishi Mining, the company had mines in various places. Many Koreans had been taken away as well.

Miike coal mine of Mitsui was the largest coal mine in Japan. 93 people were entrained in 1940, 96 were in1941, 1834 people in 1942, 2889 people in 1943, 2466 people in 1944 and 1886 people in1945. The entrainment total is 9264 people ("Survey on Korean laborer" the summary table of Fukuoka Prefecture, the Ministry of Health and Welfare).

Not all named are available, but there is a roster of 1683 workers of Manda mine in Miike. And it indicated that 20 times of collective entrainment were made from 1942 to 1945. 762 people escaped, 35 people died, 84 people deported or returned home, and 706 people were discharged after war.

In South Korea, those recruitments are called the Requisition or Forced mobilization. This representation shows the actual situation of mobilization. The Japanese government claims that the Recruitment Ordinance was applied in1944, but forced mobilization had been carried out since 1939 by the Labor Mobilization plan of JapanD

In addition, the records List of Employees at Mitui Mining Company at Omuta of GHQ E LS, contains a roster of about 3,000 Koreans of Miike coal mine.

Koreans were taken to the Mitui related business such as Electrochemical industry Omuta factory and Miike dye Industries. To Electrochemical industry Omuta, 572 people had been taken by January 1944 (" Surveys Table of laborer populate and workplace of labor mobilization plan" Fukuoka Prefecture). To Miike dye, more than 130 people were entrained (Korean roster of Miike dye).

The number of people who were entrained to Mitsui Miike coal mine is 9300 people. Combing the number of entrainment to Miike coal industrial complex factory, more than 10,000 people were taken. 50 Koreans in the Miike coal mine, 4 in Electrochemical, 8 in Miike dye had died.

As for the Chinese entrainment situation, 412 people were entrained in May 1944, 595 people in February 1945, 593 and 307 people in March, 1945 to the Manda mines 1907 in total, of which 694 people were transferred to the Yotsuyama mine in February to March 1945.

To Miyaura mine, 231 people entrained in May 1944, 343 people were entrained in October1944, 574 in total. All in all entrained Chinese were 2481 people, nearly 2,500. 294 people died in Manda, 158 people died in Yotsuyama and 41 people died in Miyaura.

The Chinese memorial was constructed in 2013 at Miyaura, written the deaths total of 635.

In 2005, Chinese Survivors who were taken to Mitsui Miike and Mitsui Tagawa coal mine, started a law suit demanding apology and compensation. The plaintiff RiuChien was taken to Miyaura in Miike coal mine from Hebei Province, in the spring of 1944, he was forced to labor in a violent circumstance. RiuChienfs right foot was hit by the labor supervisor with an ax, and deformedly bound. The X-ray that was shown in the trial was proved the history of the harsh forced labor.

Allied POWs Fukuoka camp 17th branch opened in August 1943. The prisoners had been forced to labor in the Miike coal mine. At the end of the war, 1737 people were captured (US730, Australia420, Netherlands332, Britain250, other5). 138 people died, of which one starved to death in a guardhouse, one fled and stabbed to death.

Miike 25th branch opened in September 1944, the prisoners were forced to labor in Electrochemical industry Omuta. 390 people were there in at the time of defeat (UK 388, US 2). Four people died.

Mitsui Mining changed its name to Nippon Coke & Engineering today.

Entrainment of Koreans more than 30,000 people, Chinese more than 3400 people, more than 4,500 Allied POWs

As we have seen, in the Meiji Industrial Revolution heritage sites, about 9300 Koreans were entrained to Mitsui Miike coal mine, about 4000 to Mitsubishi Takashima coal mine (Takashima and Hashima), about 6,000 to Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard Works, 3800 or more to Nippon Steel Yahata, more than 2800 people to Yahata Works transportation contractors Mutual Aid Association. In addition, forced entrainment was also seen in Miike dye, Electrochemical Omuta Works, Mitsubishi Nagasaki weapons, Nagasaki steelmaking, and underground factory construction site of Mitsubishi Nagasaki shipbuilding. About 1,500 had been entrained to Nippon Steel Kamaishi. Overall, the number of entrained Korean people will be more than 30,000 people, if we include the related business.

Of Korean, identified are, 50 people in the Mitsui Miike mine, 8 people in Miike dye, 4 people in Electrochemical Omuta, about 50 people in Mitsubishi Takashima mine(Hashima), about 70 people in the Mitsubishi Nagasaki shipbuilding, and the about 70 in Kamaishi related business. Many of the death of Yahata and Takashima mine, remains unknown. Many of them also died of Atomic bomb. With the advanced investigation, we will know the number of Koreans deaths, which is expected to be more than 300 people.

Korean forced labor, also left a large number of unpaid wages. At least, about 6000 yen at Mitsui Miike smelter, about 80,000 yen at Mitsui Miike dye, about 80,000 yen in Electrochemical Omuta, about 300,000 yen in Yahata steel, about 860,000yen in the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard, and about 220,000 yen in Mitsubishi Takashima coal mine has been not paid.

About 2,500 Chinese, were sent to Mitsui Miike coal mine, and 400 to Mitsubishi Takashima coal mine (Takashima and Hashima), about 200 people to Yahata Harbor Transportation, totally 3100 people were entrained. about 500 people died at Mitsui Miike. About 550 people died these three places. Furthermore, Kamaishi mine had taken 288 people of whom, 123 people were died. Entrained number exceed , 3400 people in total.

As for Allied prisoners of war, about 1900 people to the Miike Coal Mine, about 400 people to the Electrochemical Omuta, about 500 people to the Mitsubishi Nagasaki shipbuilding and about 1350 people to Nippon Steel Yahata were entrained. The deaths exceeded 400 people. If we add 400 people who had been taken to Kamaishi ironworks, more than 4,500 had been forced labor. The deaths exceed 450 people.

4@ Historical recognition of forced labor and its inheritance is required

The Industrial revolution of Japan has been advanced with the war of Sino, Russia and the World War. The Heavy industrialization (coal industry, steel industry, shipbuilding industry) is an economic growth from the wars, and triggered the invasion and occupation of Taiwan, Liaodong Peninsula, Korean Peninsula, and the colonial rule. The maintenance and expansion of heavy industry expanded the war further. The Japanese Industrial Revolution is strongly related to its colonialism and war of Asia.

The subject that the Japanese government proposed was limited to the Industrial Revolution, in the Meiji period. Although international revolution developed in parallel with invasion and colonialism, the government romanticizes the industrialization and tries to make tourism resources, not facing the history. Who would agree such movement if one has experienced their colonial rule? In such point of view, one is not able to inherit proper history. If you see only a narrow slice of history, the Meiji era from the 1850s to 1910, as the proposal, the subsequent history will not be visible.

In the field of coal mining, steel and shipbuilding, a number of workers lost their lives. Those coals and ores are the result of their sacrifices. In order to understand the modernization and industrialization of Japan, perspectives of workers and Asian society are essential. Without these viewpoints, only nationalistic perspective, which beautifies the modernization and industrialization, will make up a story lacks remorse and pain.

It was the Prime Ministerfs officeCnot the Agency for Cultural Affairs, that handled the registration procedure. The Abe administration has been influenced by the ideology of NipponKaigi (Japan conference). NipponKaigi has justified the past wars and the domination of Korea. In the framework of the application of Meiji Industrial Revolution heritage, the idea of historical revisionism is reflected. Not the story of nationalist leader from Shoin Yoshida to Hirobumi Ito, but the story of workers, the Korean and Chinese people, and the victims should be inherited.

The development of capitals in the steel, coal and shipbuilding industries has been along with bad working environment, and the expansion of war begat the forced labor of Koreans, Chinese and Allied POWs. After the war, these places represented the unity of workers, miserable work-related accidents also occurred. Only to prize the formation of industry does not mean to inherit the history. Needless to say, these industrial ruins should not be used to whip up nationalism.

In the 1990s, survivors of South Korea and China stood up to demand compensation and apology. Mitsui and Mitsubishi accused as the major companies which had led such forced labor. Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metals (Nippon Steel) is same too. However, the Japanese government did not carry out enough investigations and kept claiming that it already resolved the issue.

The dispute continues in South Korea, and the defendant is Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, or Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal. The Korean judiciary admitted the individual rights of compensation.

There are also graves of unknown prisoners in Miike. There are tombs of unknown workers in Takashima coal mine. Dead name remains unknown. Likewise in coal and steel production, a lot of people in the field of shipbuilding died. The Meiji industrial heritage is what to tell of the presence of these people.

The ruins that were made in Meiji era, some of also there were running when the forced labor were carried out. Industrial ruins saw forced labor and war. Miike and Takashima coal mine, factory of Yahata and Nagasaki shipbuilding are something to talk about history of working and forced labor. We should talk pain and sorrow that the Koreans and Chinese experienced.

In Miike and Nagasaki, there are memorial of the Korean and Chinese. Those activities of mourning by local people should be talk.

Telling the history of the slave trade, colonization and forced labor, will lead to universal historical recognition.

70 years after the war, denial of forced labor has led to movement to distort the story of colonial rule and aggression. Government, Mitsubishi, Mitsui, Nippon Steel& Sumitomo Metals should admit the fact of forced labor and talk the historical fact of the industrial ruins. Then, towards the solution of wartime forced labor issues, they should actively involve to affairs such as establishment of compensation fund.

In July 2015, Mitsubishi Materials Corp apologized to forced labor of Allied POWs in the United States. It was the first case of those companies. Apology, to the Koreans and Chinese and individual compensation is expected.

On the monument of Kubo Kiyoshi (killed in 1960 by a terrorist group) ,the resolution to inherit his aspiration in written. It is the decision to achieve the true liberation of the workers. Next to the monument, "Dedicated to comrades Kubo Kiyosi" is standing.

This poem contains the meaning of resistance against the rationalization of the history of the Meiji industrial heritage.

On the coming day  that history is written correctly  on the coming days

They will say that we went to the right way

They will say that we lived beautifully

Although our shoulders are twisted in labor  fingers are gnarled in poor

They will say that our the eyes were straight and beautiful

They will say that our eyes stared straight of the beautiful future

They will say Japanese workers were in strong anger and a lot of blood was shed in Miike @

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